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18   John Tyler  $300 $400 $440 4 You must login to place a bid.

#18 - John Tyler

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President Tyler requests the “papers sent with the China Treaty”
Description  

Boldly penned ALS signed “J. Tyler,” one page, 4.5 x 7, no date. Confidential letter to a gentleman. In part: “The papers sent with the China Treaty are the original which we have had no time to copy—a return of them when the Senate…[is] done with them is respected.” In fine condition, with intersecting folds, subtle foxing, and a small tear to top edge.

This most likely relates to the very first treaty between the United States and China, which was signed on July 3, 1844, and ratified by President Tyler on January 17, 1845. Known as the Treaty of Wang Hiya, it was negotiated by Caleb Cushing, a Massachusetts lawyer dispatched by President John Tyler under pressure from American merchants concerned about the British dominance in Chinese trade. The lengthy treaty was modeled after similar agreements between China and the United Kingdom, and included: extraterritoriality, which meant that US citizens could only be tried by US consular officers; fixed tariffs on trade in the treaty ports; the right to buy land in the five treaty ports and erect churches and hospitals there; the right to learn Chinese by abolishing a law which hitherto forbade foreigners to do so; and granting the US most-favored-nation status, allowing the nation additional privileges. The US also banned opium trade in a concession to the Chinese. Given the date that this treaty was passed, this is most likely an ALS as president. An exceptionally bold letter from this historic time between nations, setting the stage for the immense growth of international commerce that continues to this day. Pre-certified PSA/DNA.

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